滑环在包括旋转底座或平台（包括索引表、卷取机和自动焊接机等工业设备）在内的各种设计中表现出色。风力涡轮机是另一个关键的应用——MRI和CT成像的医学应用也是如此。Slip rings excel in myriad designs that include a rotating base or platform — including industrial equipment such as index tables, winders, and automated welders. Wind turbines are another key application — as are medical applications for MRI and CT imaging.
MRI BioMatrix Technology image courtesy Siemens Healthineers
滑环也在闭路安全摄像头的枢轴点工作。Slip rings also work at the pivot point of closed-circuit security cameras.
Courtesy PowerbyProxi (now of Apple)
游乐场游乐设施上的滑环包括向旋转木马、摩天轮和垂直下落游乐设施的移动部分传输电力、控制信号和数据的滑环。直升机、起重机、电梯、发电机和旋转窑就是其他例子。让我们再详细看看。Slip rings on amusement-park rides include those that transmit power, control signals, and data to and from the moving sections of carousels, Ferris wheels, and vertical-fall rides. Helicopters, cranes and elevators, generators, and rotating kilns are other examples. Let’s look at a few more in detail.
DoD photo: Navy Petty Officer 3rd Class Logan C. Kellums ? Navy Petty Officers Melvin Bergado and David Hill-Destefano clear after attaching cargo to an MH-60R Seahawk on the USS Chung-Hoon in the Pacific Ocean.
风力发电机组的建设在全球范围内呈上升趋势，尤其是在欧洲。一个挑战是不断地暴露在这些元素中……只有定期的维护才能清理涡轮机中的碎片并重新润滑。这意味着滑环必须具有长期的可靠性——具有耐用的接触结构，能够承受甚至峰值的功率输出。海上涡轮机尤其需要高度可靠的滑环，因为它们需要维修时会花费成本和时间。Wind-turbine construction on the rise globally, especially in Europe. One challenge is constant exposure to the elements … with only periodic maintenance to clean the turbine of debris and relubricate. That means slip rings must have long-term reliability — with durable contact construction to withstand even peak power output. Offshore turbines especially necessitate highly reliable slip rings due to the cost and time expenditures incurred should they need service.
Courtesy Nordex SE
另一个挑战是满足越来越大和强大的涡轮机的要求，这些涡轮机需要特殊的功率传输和信号传输来进行定位和状态监测。这包括带动力的变桨控制和用于叶片信息、轮毂和变桨电机调整的命令（通过滑环上的信号）以及备用电源。Another challenge is satisfying the requirements of increasingly large and powerful turbines needing exceptional power transfer and transmission of signals for positioning as well as condition monitoring. This includes pitch control with power and commands (via signals over the slip ring) for blade information, hub and pitch motor adjustments, and power backup.
Courtesy Nordex SE
Deublin销售海上风电机组接头，该接头包含滑环和编码器……以及能够输送至250 A的海上和海上组件，以及以太网或EtherCAT或Profibus信号和旋转位置跟踪，即使额定值为IP66，也能抵抗冲击和振动。Deublin sells offshore wind-turbine unions that incorporate a slip ring and encoder … with on and offshore assemblies capable of delivering to 250 A — along with Ethernet or EtherCAT or PROFIBUS signals and rotary position tracking — even while rated to IP66 and resisting shock and vibration.
Integrated into a rotary union, these assemblies also accommodate hydraulics.
Slip rings in machinery for semiconductor processing
…制造过程中可能涉及材料和液体的应用。… where manufacture can involve the application of materials and fluids.
举个例子：在化学机械平面化的过程中——这一过程在半导体加工中通常比较晚，所以必须快速进行——集成滑环旋转接头优于…特别是具有耐腐蚀性和耐磨性设置的特点。Case in point: During the process of chemical mechanical planarization — a process that usually comes late in semiconductor processing, so must go quickly — integrated slip-ring rotary unions excel … especially with features to withstand the corrosive and abrasive setting.
Indexing image courtesy Nexen Group ?
Slip rings in aerospace, defense, and marine
在航空航天工业中，航天器太阳能电池组使用小型滑环，滑环安装在转子至面板的移动执行器输出端。在类似的国防应用中，滑环在装甲车炮塔中起作用，以消除单独的炮塔或炮手站电池。在这里，一个主要的环境挑战是，即使面对振动，也要保持可靠的电源、数据甚至视频流连接。In the aerospace industry, spacecraft solar arrays use small slip rings that mount at their rotor to panel-moving actuator outputs. In a similar application in defense, slip rings work in armored-vehicle turrets to allow elimination of separate turret or gunner-station batteries. Here, a major environmental challenge is maintaining reliable power, data, and even video-stream connectivity even in the face of vibration.
DoD photo: Marine Corps Cpl. Alexander Sturdivant ?
滑环完成了海上设计，如游轮、破冰船、海岸警卫队船只和海上平台。雷达塔是一种大量使用滑环的设计。Slip rings complete marine designs such as cruise liners, icebreakers, Coast Guard vessels, and offshore platforms. One design making heavy use of slip rings is radar towers.
滑环还支持遥控车辆或遥控潜水器的功能以及其他水下设计。这与滑环暴露在油中的水下应用没有什么不同，例如在机床行业。Slip rings also support the functions of remotely operated vehicles or ROVs and other designs for underwater. These are not unlike submerged applications where the slip ring is exposed to oil — as in the machine-tool industry, for example.
最近，DEUBLIN杜博林研究了一种滑环，这种滑环的潜水能力达到一米需要IP67等级。密封效果至关重要。制造商在水下运行了一个密封的滑环，并通过了测试。显然，高密封等级（如IP67）通常是定制的。Recently Deublin worked on a slip ring that needed an IP67 rating for submergibility to one meter. The sealing effectiveness was paramount. The manufacturer ran a sealed slip ring underwater and passed the test. To be clear, high seal ratings such as IP67 are usually custom specified.
NASA photo | The International Space Station is seen from Space Shuttle Discovery. Solar arrays power the ISS and rely on specialty slip rings for power and data transmission in the challenging vacuum environment.
Slip rings in the packaging industry
让我们考虑一下Deublin的SRC和SRD电气滑环。这些是专门用于支持药品、食品和饮料以及其他消费品包装的机器。这些都是模块化的和可配置的-多达40个电子通道和最高速度到250转/分…这是包装的关键，依靠快速的吞吐量盈利。Let’s consider SRC and SRD electrical slip rings from Deublin. These are specific to machines to support the packaging of pharmaceutical, food and beverage, and other consumable goods. These are setup to be modular and configurable — with up to 40 electrical channels and top speeds to 250 rpm … which is key in packaging that relies on speedy throughput for profitability.
Uniloy injection-blow UIB 199 machine example courtesy Milacron
其中的一些挑战更为具体：例如，涉及塑料的机器需要熔化来成型或回收，可能会使滑环的环境温度达到150°C。Some of the challenges are more specific: For example, machines involving plastics that need to be melted for molding or recycling might subject slip rings to ambient temperatures reaching 150° C.
SRD electrical slip ring from Deublin
当然，传递能量的滑环会产生自己的热量——当滑环已经在热环境中运行时，这是一个相关的设计考虑。Of course, slip rings that transmit energy will generate their own heat — a pertinent design consideration when already operating in hot settings.
One last slip-ring application: Synchronous electric motors
滑环可用于异步电动机的启动，也可用于交流感应电动机的绕线转子电动机。在这里，他们不传递能量。相反，他们在转子绕组中插入电阻。很明显，电机中的滑环和换向器不同。是的，它们的设计和功能是相似的。但是滑环中的环是连续的。相反，换向器是分段的。阅读更多关于这个主题的文章：什么是绕线转子电机？Slip rings find use in the startup of asynchronous electric motors — in the ac induction motors known as wound-rotor motors. Here, they don’t transfer power. Rather, they insert resistance into rotor windings.To be clear — a slip ring in a motor is not the same as a commutator. Yes, their designs and functions are similar. But a ring in a slip ring is continuous. In contrast, commutators are segmented. Read more on this topic at the post: What is a wound rotor motor?
总之，绕线转子电机中的滑环有三个回路。环位于电机轴上（隔离），由铜或合金制成。In short, slip rings in wound-rotor motors have three circuits. The rings are on the motor shaft (isolated) and made of copper or an alloy.
Photos: WEG Electric Corp.
每个连接到三个转子绕组相中的一个。石墨刷连接到变阻器或其他电阻装置上。当滑环与转子一起转动时，电刷会骑在滑环上，并对转子绕组施加电阻。这使得转子电流与定子电流同相。这将以相对较低的电流提高扭矩输出。在电机启动顺序结束（且电机达到全速）后，滑环短路并失去接触（以避免它们对效率和扭矩的影响），并让该电机作为标准交流感应电机运行。Each connect to one of three rotor-winding phases. Graphite brushes connect to a rheostat or other resistive device. When the slip ring turns with the rotor, the brushes ride those rings and impart resistance to the rotor windings. That brings rotor current more in-phase with stator current. This boosts torque output with relatively low current. After the motor start-up sequence ends (and the motor reaches full speed) the slip rings short out and lose contact (to avoid dings to efficiency and torque they’d otherwise impart) and let that motor run as a standard ac induction motor.
信德迈科技(北京)有限公司 CNMEC Technology Company
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